*September 2020*

tl;dr: Work the geometric reasoning with pseudo-inverse optimization into the neural network.

#### Overall impression

KM3D-Net is based on the previous work from the same author, RTM3D. KM3D-Net is highly practical, and works the 3D geometry reasoning module into the neural network to speed things up. Geometric constraint modules in Deep3DBox, FQNet and RTM3D are time consuming.

The semi-supervised learning approach is quite interesting and showed that it is possible to get meaningful results just from as few as 500 **labeled** images. Maybe it is a good direction to dig with the self-consistency cues in UR3D and MoVi-3D. The self-supervised learning are done on

The removal of the depth prediction directly from the neural network makes it possible to do geometric data augmentation and introduce self-supervised loss.

This is the currently the SOTA, much better than previous SOTA M3D-RPN.

A quick summary of CenterNet monocular 3D object detection.

- CenterNet predicts 2D bbox center and uses it as 3D bbox center.
- SMOKE predicts projected 3D bbox center.
- KM3D-Net and Center3D predict 2D bbox center and offset from projected 3D bbox center.
- MonoDLE predicts projected 3D bbox center, and also predicts offset to 2D bbox as auxiliary task.

#### Key ideas

- Architecture
- Based on CenterNet and RTM3D. Very similar to SMOKE.
- 1 ch for main center (2D bbox center)
- 18 = 2 * (8+1) offset from main center
- 3 chs for dim
- 8 chs for orientation
- 1 ch for IoU conf loss

- Work GRM (geometry reasoning module) into the neural network.
**Semi-supervised** training: consensus loss between the prediction of the same unlabeled image under different input data aug.
**Keypoint dropout** in the process of training geometry reasoning module. Note that we only need to solve for 3 DoF location, and thus ideally with 2 keypoints we can already recover the 3D bbox. This is confirmed in Ablation study (Fig. 4) that with only two keypoints, the performance can be already reasonable, and no obvious improvements beyond using 4 keypoints.

#### Technical details

- The prediction of the 9 points are all formulated as
**offset regression from the main center instead of heatmaps**. This is different from previous work of RTM3D where all 9 points are predicted via heatmaps. This paper reasons that heatmap prediction of keypoints are semantically ambiguous and cannot estimate the keypoints of the **truncated** region. –> this makes perfect sense. The truncation problem is investigated in detail per MonoFlex.
- Depth guided L1 loss: initial L1 at near distance, but log when far.

#### Notes

- The self-supervised loss may be used for object detection? Fliplr and add consistency loss.